Books and documents:
Agustí Chalaux de Subirà, Brauli Tamarit Tamarit.
Agustí Chalaux de Subirà.
Agustí Chalaux de Subirà.
Agustí Chalaux de Subirà.
Magdalena Grau, Agustí Chalaux.
Annex to chapter 9.
As it has been said in item
5 of chapter 9, market is considered as a complex reality where agents
and goods converge to produce exchanges, mediatized by a money system,
and organized in main cycles and sub-cycles.
In the following pages we will examine in detail all these elements.
Merchandises are utilitarian goods as they are exchanged in the market.
They are therefore a passive subject of any essential exchange within the
market. There are two fundamental sorts of goods:
They are called «active production factors», «production
agents» or «producing merchandises» and we define them
as the forces which, within a company, co-operate in the production of
utilitarian goods. They are certainly real merchandises -at least starting
at a given historical moment- because their owners give them up against
a pay which is ordinarily called salary.
In present day market, the producing merchandises which co-operate
in the production process of a company -and are paid by it- can be subdivided
in the following categories:
The company itself, as such, which pays itself and receives total residual
benefits. From these, the dividends which the company usually grants
its shareholders, must be deducted. The company's salary is therefore the
reserve which is paid out from the benefits.
Work, purchased by the company through the salaries paid
both to the working team and to the directors (staff).
The capital, acquired by the company:
The invention purchased by the company whether by one only payment
or by paying royalties, or by a mixed contract.
against dividends proportional to the part of benefits which are
paid to shareholders, if it is a capital participating in the company;
against fixed interests, if the capital does not participate in
the company (debentures, bonds, credits, loans, mortgages, etc.).
Probably, the four private factors of production which we have detailed,
will not be immediately accepted as such. The classic books on economics,
for example, only accept the following three: work, capital and natural
resources. The list of active production factors given corresponds simply
to a wish to be practical: what is paid by the company will be considered
a production factor. The company, as a recipient of benefits, and the inventor,
as a recipient of royalties, must therefore be considered production factors.
Let us point out that they are all well defined and personalized: «production
is a work of man».
As far as natural resources are concerned, very specially the earth,
they will be considered here not as active production factors, but
passive factors, goods produced which man transforms in
the production of new merchandises (see chart number 2).
Produced merchandises (inert objects and utilitarian services) are
utilitarian goods obtained by the transforming action of new materials
brought about by the producing merchandises. As far as the place occupied
in the production processes is concerned, they can be classified as follows:
Goods socially not complete. They have not yet completed their mercantile
life and must stay in the market for some of the following reasons:
Socially complete goods. They are those which wear out their mercantile
life because they are bought by consumers, who will not trade with them,
as they will simply use them (see chart number 3).
because they are bought by a company to transform them and sell them again
to another company; they are therefore goods technologically and socially
incomplete, which we will call goods of current production;
because they are bought by a company which will use them as instruments
in its production processes; they are then goods technologically complete
and socially incomplete, which we will call consumers goods.
The active exchange agents -the exchanging subjects- are also classified
with respect to the exchanged goods. We may consider the following classification:
companies, which acquire and sell produced goods socially complete
and purchase producing merchandise for a salary.
Producers (including companies) who exchange producing merchandises
for a salary.
Consumers, who acquire socially complete merchandises from trading
and retail companies.
Of all the classifications considered up to now it is easy to follow
a market analysis with the following cycles based on the operation effected
and making reference to the goods produced:
production cycle, where all the exchanges of socially incomplete,
produced goods are included, and which is subdivided as follows:
Sub-cycle of wholesale and production trade, which includes all
the exchanges of goods of current production.
Sub-cycle of investment production, which includes all the exchanges
of goods of utilitarian investment.
Sub-cycle of retail trade and industry, which includes all the exchanges
of consumers' goods.
Consumers' cycle, which includes all the exchanges of socially complete
produced goods, that is, the exchanges effected between retail trade and
industries and consumers.
We must also consider another mercantile cycle: the foreign trade
cycle, which is not explained only by the sort of exchange effected
-as it includes exchanges of all sorts of goods-, but mainly by the trade
addressee (buyer or seller), who in this cycle is always foreign to that
As it has already been said in chapter 9,
the analysis of the many elements and cycles of the market is based on
a will for the highest phenomenological clarity, for a more rigorous scientific
knowledge and for a more effective political action.
It must be remembered that the exact knowledge of each of these elements
and cycles is only possible through the introduction of the telematic cheque-invoice
as the sole legal and real monetary instrument. The money system is one
of the key elements in the market, and if we have not mentioned it in this
annex, it is because we take for granted what has been said in this respect
in the previous chapters.
It is now time to consider some of the technical contingencies of the
analysis effected. The clear distinction of elements, processes and mercantile
realities makes actually possible a more effective technical organization
of the market, according to every political option being considered.
We will now submit some of the norms where all that has been said can
be given legal form. The fundamental reasons for those norms -that is,
the political option in which they originate- will not be openly declared,
as it will be the basis of another essay. We will therefore describe the
submitted norms from an exclusively technical point of view, limited to
models of cheque-invoices, statutes of mercantiles agents, types of current
accounts and categories of accounting organizations.
Legal differentiation of types of cheque-invoices.
The different sorts of monetary operations involved in the many mercantile
cycles and the variety of agents demand, in order to attain a greater ease
and simplification of the telematic programmes, that several models of
telematic cheque-invoices be legalized for each kind of monetary operation.
This differentiation will be very easy to carry on through numeral
codes, colours, etc. (standard paper and forms), and will involve the following
Legal differentiation of mercantile agents statutes.
1. Cheque-invoices for sale of produced goods.
1.1. Inter-company cheque-invoices, that is for the sale of goods
socially incomplete, between two companies (production cycle):
cheque-invoices for sale of goods of current production (sub-cycle of production
and wholesale trade);
cheque-invoices for sale of investment goods (sub-cycle of investment production);
cheque-invoices for sale of consumers goods (sub-cycle of consumers production,
that is purchases made by retail trade and industries from wholesalers).
1.2. Consumers cheque-invoices, that is of sale of goods socially
completed between a retail trade or industry and a consumer (consumers
2. Cheque-invoices for sale of producing goods.
It refers to the salary cheque-invoices between a company and the producing
goods acquired. These cheque-invoices will not be fixed for every merchandise,
but every company will make them globally for all the producing goods purchased
during a fixed period. They will therefore have the appearance of salary
sheets where all the amounts to be paid by the company will be indicated.
These salary cheque-invoices will be transmitted to the general association
of accounting firms, which will distribute salaries among the current accounts
of the beneficiaries.
We must also add that all these sorts of cheque-invoices will be differentiated
whether they are sales within the domestic trade of the geo-political society
or sales abroad (see chart number 4).
Law will recognize only the following types of mercantile agents:
Legal differentiation of current account classes.
Companies (mere producers): they buy producing goods and produced
goods, which they combine and transform to obtain new produced goods for
Consumers-producers: they sell to a company their producing goods
and with the salary therefrom they can participate as purchasers in the
Mere consumers: they have no producing goods for exchange in the
To these agents, mere consumers, the geo-political society will grant a
social solidarity salary, with which they will be able to participate in
the consumers cycle as purchasers; this will be their only participation
in the market.
The social statutes of each of those mercantile agents will have to
be very well defined by law, to avoid any possible ambiguousness (see chart
For a greater mercantile and social clearness of the mentioned statutes,
the different monetary operations -represented by the corresponding cheque-invoices-
will also be made through clearly defined types of current accounts, and
only through them. There will be three different types of current-accounts
to be opened in an accounting firm:
Production current accounts (only in trading banks): they are the
current accounts of companies active in production. All the inter-company
operations and payment of private salaries (as it has been said) will be
done through one of these accounts. Every company will be allowed to open
as many as necessary.
Production savings current accounts: the current accounts where
utilitarian professionals (that is employees, capitalists, entrepreneurs,
inventors) deposit their salaries and private incomes, paid by the companies:
salaries, interests, royalties and benefits, respectively. According to
the number of salaries received by a utilitarian professional, there will
Consumers savings current accounts (only in savings banks): these
current accounts will be fed only by:
Savings current accounts of mono-salary production (only in savings
Savings current accounts of multi-salary production (only in trading
In both cases2,
the operations to be made through a production savings current account
will be the following two:
Capital investment, through a convenient contract, either with a trading
bank, or directly with a company (if the investor is a mono-salary worker,
when he receives interests he will become a multi-salary worker and will
have to cancel his mono-salary current account and open a multi-salary
To transfer a given quantity to the «consumers savings current account»
Legal differentiation of types of accounting firms.
Private origin buying power, coming from production savings current
Community origin buying power, coming from «social solidarity
(see chart number 6).
With a consumers savings current account, whichever the origin -private
or community- of its buying power, it will only be possible to effect sales
operations of completed goods, that is consumers goods. No other operation
will be possible, and no quantities will be possibly transferred from this
current account to another.
Finally it will be necessary to clearly distinguish two types of accounting
firms, because of very different peculiarities and functions.
This distinction falls within a broader idea of the distinction between
«utilitarian society» and «liberal society» (see
14). Trading and savings banks will differentiate themselves clearly
because of the functions and services which by law they will be allowed
to offer to the utilitarian society and for the benefits they will obtain
from these services.
Trading banks. They will be utilitarian societies as any other,
specialized in offering «accounting services» to all the other
non accounting utilitarian companies, but their services will be limited
exclusively to the production cycle.
As a matter of fact, as we have seen, in the trading banks only «production
current accounts» will be opened (by the companies), and «multi-salary
production saving current accounts» (by multi salary utilitarian
professionals). This means that they will only handle buying power from
the consumers cycle.
The services offered by trading banks will be mainly the following:
Savings banks. They will also be at the service of the utilitarian
society, but only in the consumers cycle. Since the consumers cycle is
socially all-comprising, that is, it includes all the members of the geo-political
society, the savings banks should have a liberal statute: their services
will not be paid directly by their clients, they will be free and financed
by the community through suitable «salaries and social solidarity
budgets» (see chapter 12).
In the first place, they will manage the above metioned current accounts,
and they will receive from the treasury a commission agreed between the
guild of the trading banks4
and the monetary authorities of the state. It must be pointed out that
multi-salary utilitarian professionals, in order to receive their multiple
incomes, will have to organize in a company under the legal form of a joint
stock company, either mono-individual or multi-individual: therefore all
the clients of the trading banks will be, by law, companies.
In the second place, and this will be their main work and business, trading
banks will be able to carry on their specific banking business of «capitalization»:
that is the conversion of the savings in the current accounts into
capital to be used in the production cycle. As a matter of fact banks have
always provided the market with the «buying power» which in
every given time-space is lacking to carry on or increase its production
processes. This buying power sold to the production cycle is rightly
called «capital». Banks «produce capital» through
a number of banking techniques and processes: loans, draft discount, etc.,
which, as we have already seen in chapter 4,
always mean a «money invention» on the deposits of customers.
But, as we will later explain, socialization of all the positive balances
of the free current accounts unables trading banks to «capitalize»
such balances and «other people's resources». Therefore, banks
will have to reduce their «invention of money» exclusively
to their own capitals and reserves, and to the quantities from current
accounts deposited on a short or long term basis, that is clearly
bindingly given to the bank for capitalization. These short or long term
deposits in the trading banks will not be socialized.
Finally, the trading banks will be charged by the state of the distribution
of the «community credits for investment» (see chapter
12) and for this service they will charge for every credit granted
the normal bank interest (let us point out that the community credits for
investment fetch the double of the normal bank interest).
The main service of the savings bank is the management of the «savings
current accounts of mono-salary production» and of the «consumers
savings current accounts».
But besides this utilitarian service, savings banks have as a task
non-utilitarian social functions, directly related to the social life of
each of the persons related to them.
Therefore, savings banks -locally organized by town quarters and associated
in the geo-political society- will act as «census office»:
every citizen will be recorded in the savings bank his quarters, where
a «consumers savings current account» will be immediately opened
with a telematic number which will accompany him all his life and identify
him in all his social activities. Savings banks will release, keep and
file all the documents necessary in a civilized world: health card, school
documents, car papers, etc., all of them with the same telematic number.
All the social and informative services will be completely free (see chart
example, all professionals and liberal groups and the people put aside
at present for reasons of money, and who are here considered as completely
excluded from the production market.
distinction is made in order to know at any given time how many mono-salary
employees there are in the geo-political society, because one of the proposed
goals is the disappearance of this category of utilitarian professionals
(mono-salary employees). This will be possible through the development
of self-management, which implies the participation of workers in the company's
savings current accounts of utilitarian professionals will be fed simultaneously
by the two types of buying power, since, besides the social-private salary,
they receive a social solidarity salary (sss) of a general kind (see chapter
12); on the contrary, non utilitarian people will have, on the principle
of total solidarity, a consumers savings current account fed exclusively
by communal purchasing power. As we will see in chapter
12, these people will be: individuals without a liberal profession
nor utilitarian occupation for any reason whatsoever; families -besides
the salary incomes of their members-; professionals, liberal institutions,
non-profit free associations of citizens: all of them are mere consumers,
as opposed to utilitarian professionals, who are producers-consumers.
it is explained in chapter 14, all utilitarian
companies will be compelled to associate in guilds.