Català | Castellano | English | Français | Deutsch | Italiano | Galego | Esperanto
En aquest lloc «web» trobareu propostes per fer front a problemes econòmics que esdevenen en tots els estats del món: manca d'informació sobre el mercat, suborns, corrupció, misèria, carències pressupostàries, abús de poder, etc.
Home | Who are we? | Links | Contact and email | Blog

Books and documents:

A short history of money.
Agustí Chalaux de Subirà, Brauli Tamarit Tamarit.

Communal Capitalism.
Agustí Chalaux de Subirà.

An instrument to build peace.
Agustí Chalaux de Subirà.

Semitic legends concerning the bank.
Agustí Chalaux de Subirà.

Telematic currency and market strategy.
Magdalena Grau, Agustí Chalaux.

The power of money.
Martí Olivella.

Semitic legends concerning the bank.


A talk by Agustí Chalaux de Subirà in the SalaClaret, on 22nd February 1990.


Note: Agustí Chalaux used to write in capital letters when he referred to tangible matters, while he used small letters when he wrote about abstract matters.

Semitic legends concerning the bank.


  1. Our mutual friend, Antoni de Gibert, committed me to give, here and now, not a lecture, as I do not feel to be equal to the task, but a talk among old friends of the Judaeo-Christian agreement of Catalonia, and even so «à bâtons rompus» (without rhyme or reason), as my ex-future fellow countrymen, the French, say.
  2. Please forgive me for giving this talk in Catalan, a language which I speak with some difficulty. As a matter of fact, what I have to say I think it first in French and then I translate it into Catalan.

If you want me to speak in Spanish I can do it, but I warn you that it will be even worse, because I mentally translate my thoughts into Catalan, and only after this first translating gymnastics (traduttore=traditore, they say in Italy) I take the next step of translating into Spanish. At my age my head is not working as it should, and if I am compelled to speak Spanish, any word, even a common one, sometimes can make me stumble, I become speechless and, in my confusion I don’t even remember the French word.

  1. If my words are of interest to you, I shall feel happy not for myself but for the ideal I am defending: the free faith of Abraham in the Almighty, and within this frame of total trust, to do all that is freely in our hands to try and solve every natural-social problem which may come up in the course of our life, and to try and solve, with the greatest and most forceful human brotherhood, all those problems which, even if they appear gigantic at our earth level, are nothing in the face of the Smiling Gaze of the Lord of all nations.

If I don’t manage to arouse your interest in the great problem of the bank, an institution as old as the first civilizations of Southwestern Asia, over 9,000 years ago, I humbly ask for your forgiveness in advance.

  1. I shall break up my talk in three parts:
    • 4.1. In the first one, I shall try to summarize all that I learnt from a great friend, who was besides a famous banker, in the course of my boyhood and youth.
    • 4.2. In the second part, I shall explain how I met him, and the two first legends which he explained in a lecture he gave when I was 14 and happened to find myself among serious people. At the end of his lecture I took part, more or less inopportunely, as usual, and this caused the great banker to take an interest in me, an insignificant boy in short trousers.
    • 4.3. In the third part, the conclusions, I shall give my opinion:
      • 4.3.1. In the first place on my good old friend;
      • 4.3.2. And finally on:
        • currency
        • money
        • the bank
        • the bank loans, niggardly usurious with very high interest rates in favour of a bank which uses, without paying any interest or a very low one, other peoples’ resources which have not been secured through a commercial transaction, but simply taken by force through many un-social reasons.
        • and on the imaginative and wholesale usurious invention of the great private world bank, which perhaps has already disappeared to the detriment of all and in the favour of «half public banks», which besides are called democratic, which have caused all the «brutal deeds» known as the external debt of the Third World.

Part I. The bank.

So, I shall speak now about the BANK, through the words of an old friend, already deceased, who was so good and tactful to me who, on the other hand, did not deserve him, and still less at the age when I first met him. During ten years of my life he taught me while in Paris – whenever I went there and asked to see him – what was the Bank, following a pedagogical plan he had made for me taking into account my age, and according to legends of his dynastic tradition, bearing patiently with my short understanding and my bad temper, often harsher and more impertinent that I myself would like in any discussion.

Nowadays, and after long thoughts all along my life of continuous changes (French secondary school, French high school, lavish holidays in Barcelona and in all continental Europe, School of Chemistry at Mulhouse, the uncivil war in Barcelona from 1936 to 1939, and the Second World War in France from 1939 to 1945, return to Barcelona, etc.), I think that the Bank is absolutely essential for the whole of civilized society: a great part of the progressive wellbeing and of the technical productive progress of history is the result of the constant intuitive action of the greatest world bankers.

If those who occupy the seats of high politics, and the ruling classes of historical societies, had done their liberal jobs with a communal uprightness so altruistic and impartial in the long run as the bankers have done their monetary trade, which is essentially selfish and individualistic, profit making and self-interested in the short run, we would all be much better off. As my friend, the great banker, said with a disarming cynicism, «by buying politicians and high officials, I am doing my banker’s job. Get cross with them. Letting themselves to be bought by me, they are not doing their job as politicians unconditionally in the service of society.»

If you can, I suggest that you go to the theatre to see «The Anarchist banker», by Pessoa, and you will see that really bankers do their job by perverting politicians and other moral leaders, while these don’t do theirs, allowing themselves to be secretly perverted by bankers.

What my great banker friend tried to make me understand (saying with an ironic smile: «when you finally understand what I am explaining to you, I will have been pushing up the daisies for a long time») was: the most graceful, comfortable and effective instrument politicians have available to solve the material problems of their peoples is the control from the very beginning (ab ovo) of currency and money.

I finally understood this, but I have not been able, in any place, to let my audience understand it. Probably it is my fault, because I cannot explain this matter properly. I am too technical, and technology is boring, mainly if economist “technicians”, who know more than me as far as a convincing verbiage is concerned, have explained during centuries exactly the opposite.

My friend the great banker, cynical and «charmant» (charming), told me things which I later verified, through the study of present day prehistory and ethnography, and which show his huge humanistic learning, which was in advance of 50 years with respect to that which was officially taught by the scholars of the time (1925-1939).

For example, he used to explain to me that in its evolution of millions years, mankind has tried two systems of social structures and techniques radically different between them:

  1. One structure, based on «SHARING AND ADVANCING ON A NATIONAL-COMMUNAL BASIS», an exclusive structure which lasted millions of years.
  2. a much nearer in time structure, - even if it belongs to the middle and superior prehistory – based on «PRODUCING MORE AND BETTER, BUT BY FREE PRIVATE AGENTS OF A FREE MARKET, OR PRIVATE CAPITALISM», which little by little has devoured the whole of the previous structure in a material, superficial, connotation, but not in the wistful remembrance of all the earth peoples.


The second structure is much more belated and is called technically «MARKET OR PRIVATE CAPITALISM» for the simple reason that it is based essentially on PRIVATE PROPERTY IN FAVOUR OF MANIFOLD FREE AGENTS (GROUPS, INDIVIDUALS AND DYNASTIES), WHICH ARE REQUIRED BY THE SYSTEM TO BE VERY CAPABLE AND EVEN MORE AGGRESSIVE, at least outwardly, ONLY INTERESTED IN PRODUCING MORE AND BETTER some utilitarian values day after day more sophisticated and stimulating the most primary selfishness, not only very far from any national solidarity, but besides also with the strongest and opposite trend to burst all limitations and ancestral frontiers among all the nations of the world.

While he made me understand this slow human evolution, my friend kept repeating to me a singsong which I have never forgotten.

  1. In historical times, which started in southwestern Asia about 10,000 years ago, as a consequence of the Neolithic revolution, of which nothing is known, sociologically well documented – there started to appear what the French call «cités». This word, which the French took from the Latin word CIVITAS, but meaning URBS, that is EMPIRE-CITY, a historical notion which includes – even if small – any civil society, any geo-political space-time in the most primitive and feudal warrior strategic meaning.

During the last 12,000 years, according to my teacher-banker:

    • 1.1. belonged to the «political» area
      • 1.1.1. the economic harmonization and balance of the two mentioned social and technical structures, both opposed and complementary to each other:
      • 1.1.2. full personal and responsible control (ARQUIA)
        1. OF SHARING AND DISTRIBUTING FAIRLY ALL THE SURPLUS PRODUCTION GOODS as against the market-private buying «power» freely activated by its free and lawful private owners.
        2. Segons harmonia i equilibri autoeconòmics, els quals són l’única condició assenyada del CONTINU PROGRÉS CULTURAL DE CADA SOCIETAT CIVIL O IMPERI, DE CADA CITÉ I EL SEU BÉ COMÚ O OIKOS, VICUS... CIUTADANIA TOTA.


    • 1.2. Quite on the contrary, a banker has a foremost role in the PRIVATE MARKET, where the idea of «AFFLUENCE» is much more limited and PRIVATE, and is stated by the number of FREE PRIVATE PRODUCER AGENTS, BUSINESSMEN, INVESTORS, WORKERS, INVENTORS.

In spite of what might be said by worthless would-be revolutionaries, a large part of the progressive wellbeing and of the technical productive progress in the history of the last 4,500 years is to be attributed to bankers, also responsible for even larger misdeeds.

To finish, let me point out that in the two legends he explained in the lecture where I first met him, he slyly mentioned two characters, more or less documented historically, where in fact the two personalities of “politician” and of “banker” were mixed – actually it was not clear where the one ended and started the other one –.

Part II. How I met him and the two opening legends.

Well, after what I have said, which is the end of my Part I, we shall start with the beginning which, as always when one wants to make a résumé of the spirit of what has been said, is my second part.

One day, in a village of sweet Provence – of which I have wonderful memories but whose name I don’t want even to remember, because, not being a historian of contemporary life, I don’t want to give too many clues to professional historians, and therefore I want to leave all the doubts of «se non è vero è ben trovato»–, as I was saying then in a village of Provence where I was in a boarding school (which there is called Lycée), one afternoon when I felt bored I run away through the back door, following a habit which up to then had given quite good results, as I had a watch which worked properly and I had studied our time table as inflexible as systematically police like.

I was 14 year old, we were in 1925, and of course I went to the cinema, which was the drug of the time.

On coming out I went by a lecture hall, which wanted to imitate those found in Paris, and I stopped transfixed (tomber en arrêt) in view of a large poster which announced: «The financier’s role in the cité.» In spite of the fact that I felt a growing remorse and a sure danger of being late at my «hotel», I decided that the free admittance made it a worthwhile adventure (le jeu valait la chandelle); because of my education of a dimwit acknowledged by acquaintances and strangers, very seldom I let myself be seen in any meeting because of my bad temper.

I sat quite far from the speaker’s platform, in the last seat at the end. I was well protected from unwanted glances, while the hall filled itself with important people, between 30 and 60 years of age, most of them with solemn beards and large moustache.

The lecturer, whom I judged to be a man of the world, without any complex and with total assurance, kept reeling off what he had to say and no more than that, without any notes to read from and with the self-confidence of somebody used to speak of what he knew, when and how he decided. And he knew a lot. His discourse had an elegant and concise fluency.

  1. The keenness of his words (très malin, would say the French) left me open-mouthed, with anecdotes or legends which to me were the most outstanding of all that he said.
  2. I have already explained what is a cité in France: without any difficulty he started calling empire-cities the main small citadels where banking was born in southwestern Asia about 8,000 years ago, and empire when he spoke about Pharaonic Egypt.
  3. Here in the first place he half told the legend about the Israelite Joseph, all-powerful minister and banker of an invading Pharaoh, Hiksos, that is also Semitic. In the second place another legend about Solomon, son of David, according to him a ”great king and even better banker”, all in one.

I shall start with the shorter legend about Joseph. According to the lecturer, the great stroke of genius of Joseph was to create, from sustenance agriculture, a period of LARGE SURPLUSES IN THE WHEAT PRODUCTION simply by announcing that he was willing to buy all of it (which he demonstrated in practice for a long time). This period of promoted abundance by a great financier, is called according to legend «The 7 year fat cows», because of the obsession of considering sacred number 7, since we do not know how long the period actually lasted.

With respect to Solomon, it was even easier, even if it was much longer.

The extraordinary reputation of Solomon as a great king and better banker reached the king of Tyre and the king of Sidon, which were important trading places in those times of universal seamen and of caravans between the Mediterranean Sea and the Indian Ocean.

We shall limit our tale to the king of Tyre only. This king sent an ambassador to Solomon to ask his advice on a police problem he had that he couldn’t solve, which reduced the number of workers and inhabitants of Tyre, which he considered to be the actual wealth of his empire-city.

Solomon stopped the diplomat before he could explain anything and told him that if the king of Tyre wanted to have his advice, it was necessary to start from the beginning: to establish good diplomatic relationships, to sign an agreed contract between the two contracting parties and, as a sign of goodwill and friendship, to allow the marriage of Solomon with his prettiest and most beloved daughter.

Everything happened according to the desire of the great «banker-king». When the time for parting arrived, after the great wedding ceremony, he called the ambassador and told him:

--Well, now I can listen to the problem for which your king wants my advice, and if possible a practical and lasting solution.

The ambassador explained which was the police problem: the port proletariat of Tyre now and again revolted because they lacked bread and plundered with frightful violence the port warehouses of wheat and flour, where there were also other goods of greater value and price, defying the watchmen. The king had no option left than to send his guard and to break as many heads as necessary to finish with these occasional and spontaneous mutinies, which could have reached greater importance unless they were crushed soon and well.

  1. Through the ambassador’s words, Solomon reached this conclusion:
    1. when the warehouses are full of wheat and flour, salaries are so low that even if prices go down, poor families can buy neither bread, nor flour, nor wheat.
    2. When there is not much wheat or flour – even if the salaries of the port workers have gone up – prices are so high that the situation is still more calamitous for the poor.
  2. His advice was precise and short: I give you a letter for your king and I explain to you what my letter says, but the explanation is only for you. Nobody must know anything until the king carries out the decision I suggest to him. In my letter I tell your king that, if you are indiscreet and its content becomes known to interested persons, immediately the lightest penalty should be applied to you, that is death penalty. This must be well understood, both for this time and for your next visits.

-Oh yes, and my advice is to ELIMINATE THE CUSTOMS. After they have been eliminated, let two years go by and then come back.

The poor ambassador complained, it was impossible to eliminate the customs, the royal treasury lived on that. Solomon smiled, he knew very well the swindles favoured by the corrupt customs system of Tyre, of which the ambassador took part.

-Well, don’t discuss. Transfer my advice to your king and come back two years after putting it into practice.

In Tyre the king, following Solomon’s advice, eliminated the customs and immediately the captains of the vessels and the heads of the caravans, besides the exporters-importers showed very satisfied. Before that, to avoid paying the customs rights, the goods were declared in general at half of what had been actually shipped or loaded; for example, the official customs declaration had a money value of, say, 10, on which customs rights paid were 2.

Since at that time the goods were worth their weight in gold, the small merchants and their carriers made insurance contracts should the shipments be lost, which indicated the actual value, for example 20, for which they should have paid 4 to the customs instead of 2. When a ship, or a caravan, went lost, the insurance companies, which were already very prosperous at that time, said to the import-export company who had paid the agreed insurance premium for the whole trade reality of each operation:

-This difference between the official customs declaration and our private insurance contract shows your speculative greediness. If you do not want to have legal problems, you should accept our proposal: let us share the difference and be grateful that we do not limit ourselves to pay only according to the value indicated in the official customs document, which is the only one legal.

After all the customs officials were sent home, and the radical elimination of a bureaucratic system, obsolete and corrupt, all the traders, seamen and heads of caravans, full of initiative and creativeness, started a fantastic period of prosperity in a completely free market, without any stupid hindrance nor cost of bureaucratic corruption.

Two years after the customs had been eliminated, the ambassador of Tyre, as agreed, paid his respects to Solomon.

- You needn’t explain anything, I am perfectly aware of the prosperous situation of your trade emporium, through my Jewish bankers in Tyre.

- Here is my second letter for your king. Remember what I told you about being prudent and the speculative crimes of initiates. This is what I suggest to your king: RESTORE THE CUSTOMS.

  1. As a new system in the hand of the wealthiest aristocrats of Tyre and their accounting slaves, all of them will be directly responsible before the king of the transparency of the system, which on the other hand will be very easy to apply.
  2. Because no customs’ rights will be introduced, neither for the outgoing or incoming goods1.

You needn’t say anything. I know what you think and I have no interest in your explanations. Come back to see me after two years when this is working perfectly.

After two or three years the ambassador went back. Solomon told him:

-Here is my letter for your king, which bears my seal with my effigy. Do not try to open it to know what it says, because your life is at stake, and I insist on your discretion with respect to your king. Go, and do not come back until after two years.

The king of Tyre did what Solomon told him:

-Invite all the bankers in Tyre to a great banquet, but only them. Do not worry about my Jewish bankers: they will obey absolutely.

If you know of any banker who does not want to attend your banquet, on the morning of the same day announce that he will be sent instantly into exile forever with the help of the army (manu militari). And he went on to indicate what the king was to say in the final toast of the banquet.

This is the announcement that the kind made at the end of the banquet, attended by all the bankers of Tyre (excluding very few exceptions of some distrustful ones who had been warned), all richly dressed with their very best with their jewels, contented with the trade prosperity of Tyre:

-Dear bankers, you have seen the magnificence of my kingdom, since we eliminated the general corruption of our old-fashioned customs’ system, and thanks to the fact that now they only prepared in an absolutely clear way the official documents in full agreement with the compulsory private insurance contract for each export or import. Our accounting and our official import-export statistics are so exact that, for the first time, you too trust them more than your own private bank information.

It is a practical success which I am happy to have celebrated with you in this banquet, since you are the very energy which promotes the trade of our country.

Now I announce my decree: your corporation will pay directly to me, starting from to-day and every month, a 10% on the trade value of all the imports and exports from the port of Tyre, by both sea and surface, as customs duties.

The bankers cried and wailed, they tore their rich clothes, they made a great commotion the best they knew. Impassive the king got up and left the banquet hall together with his high dignitaries, customs heads and bodyguards and court guards.

Two years went by and the ambassador from Tyre came back, being proud of his king’s success, in which he fully partook.

-I know that everything works very well. You needn’t explain anything. Here there is a new letter for your king. Remember my order of a total loyalty and discretion, under penalty of death. For this very simple matter it is not necessary for you to come back.

In his letter Solomon wrote to the king of Tyre:

-Invite again all your bankers of Tyre to a new banquet. In your invitation, even if things for them are working better than ever, they will be suspicious after the first banquet, so tell them that whoever will not obey your order and come to your banquet, will be immediately executed and their wives and children sold into slavery.

So it was done, and this time he started with the Jewish bankers. All of them went to the banquet, putting on the already historical act of being sad and with poor garments when they appear in public.

At the end of the banquet the king of Tyre decreed:

from now on, every time that the free market prices in the city of Tyre, whether wholesale or retail:

  1. go up or down by 10%, the bank corporation of Tyre will pay a customs duty of 11% on the total exported or imported;
  2. go up or down by 15%, the customs duties will be 13%;
  3. go up or down by 20%, the customs duties will be 15%.

And so on.

Here ends the legend on Solomon. The great banker of the beginning 40 years of the 20th century announced proudly that the accounting-banking documents of Tyre show that the prices applied in this city kept an extraordinary stability during about 70 years, that is during all the time that the influence of Solomon’s Israel prevailed in the whole Palestinian area and beyond.

Here ends the lecture of the man who later became my great banker friend.

It was getting late for those Frenchmen who didn’t want to be late home when he added: if any of you wants to ask any explanation, I am at your service.

Everybody was silent and waiting politely for the lecturer to get up so as to do the same and go away, when I got up and announced that I had two questions:

  1. Why hadn’t he said anything on the role of banker Joseph with respect to the 7 years of lean cows.
  2. Why he didn’t look for a remedy similar to that of king Solomon to nip in the bud the still more severe anti-economic crisis which was impending according to all the experts of the period 1919-1924.

Instead of feeling cross in the face of my insolence, the lecturer said:

-I cannot see the gentleman who, so kind and ironic, requests these explanations with a small youthful voice. Since I believe he must be short, I would ask him to stand on his chair so that I may see him and we all know what we should do.

With all the insolence of my age, and besides being cross for his little consideration towards my distinguished self, I climbed on my chair. Imagine, I was 14 years old, and wore very short trousers which were fashionable at the time among nonconformist teenagers. Everybody, including the lecturer started laughing. Calmly he carried on: Gentlemen, it is time to go to dinner. I’ll take care of this young inquisitive friend.

Everybody went away happy and smiling, looking at me as if I were a small bird of a rare species. Luckily nobody there knew me.

While we went – the great banker and man of the world, and myself so small besides him – to the restaurant of his famous hotel, I told him I had fled from my boarding school through the back door, and that I should hurry to avoid having problems.

Ne vous préoccupez-pas, mon jeune ami. Je vous conduirai au Lycée et expliquerai moi-même que je porte toute a responsabilité de votre aventure». (Don’t worry, my young friend. I will take you back to the Lycée and explain personally that I am wholly responsible for your adventure).

Part III. Conclusion.

In this way I met the great banker who, in later years, when I phoned him that I was in Paris invited me to visit him and explained to me a great number of such legends and anecdotes on the “Sumer” bank and, in historical times, after 2,500 b.C., on the Semitic inspiration of Sargon’s imperialism and, one hundred years later, on the Kassite imperialism of Akkad-Babylon.

This Semitic influence in the bank was very important in the whole of south-western Asia, in Egypt and the ports of the Suez gulf and of the Persian gulf up to the Indus and China, where about 1500 / 1000 b.C. arrived merchants who taught the Chinese the use of written accounting, intrabank and interbank currency and of the GOLD, SILVER, COPPER AND BRONZE COINS.

If this talk has been of interest I am at your service to explain at leisure these legends, which I learnt from my banker teacher.

As a finishing touch I can only tell you that these conversations with my great banker friend lasted at intervals of 3 to 6 months between visits, from 1925 to 1934. After that, excluding a visit at the beginning of 1939 and another one in May of the same year, I did not see him any more and, as far as I know, he died in New York in 1942.

When later I could study something of archaeology, ethnography, history, technical and dromologic progress, I have been able to verify that that person, of a great knowledge and occult factual power, was in advance of about 50 years on the mindset of his time and on all the future largest documentation on the evolution of the world imperialisms following 2500 b.C., when the first imperialism of Sargon I of Akkad appeared.

His outlook was humanist and even optimistic, even if during his whole life he had a factual power which was occult and ominous. I am not surprised at his pride when he told me that, well down in his being, he was a libertarian, an anarchic (not an anarchist), and that with many of his very wealthy and powerful friends: French, Renans, Belgian, Dutch, Hanseatic, Swedes, Finnish, Hungarian etc., he was a member of the INTERNATIONAL ANARCHICH FEDERATION (IAF), which had nothing to do with the IBERIAN ANARCHIST FEDERATION (IAF) in spite of having the same initials.

I have brought copies of a  scientific  article on the bank of about 4500 years ago at Akkad. We must not forget that the Akkadian model of currency money and bank civilization prevailed very quickly in the whole of Asia Minor and Egypt, the two only exceptions in this respect in the ancient world until about the year 800 b.C., when in a small Hellenized empire of Hellespontus started the MINTING OF INTRINSIC METAL COINS.

I will tell you how the only relationship I had with the great bank started, the one which knows how to make wholesale usury, but at low interest, by inventing “imaginary-abstract money”, which those favoured pay back later in the form of HARD WORKED MONEY, PRODUCER OF PRODUCTION SURPLUSES, WHICH MAKE IT COMMERCIALLY SOLVENT, also called invented imaginary-abstract currency, WHICH IS WONDEERFULLY PROMOTING IN PRACTICE.

The only objection which my old friend found (he almost agreed with me) is that this imaginary invented currency – PROMOTER OF THE WHOLE MARKET – was a private initiative and seizure by a great private bank, instead of being the result of a LEGISLATIVE-COMMUNAL INITIATIVE WHICH AUTOMATICALLY DETERMINED the amount of this invented money –PROMOTER with respect to THE ACTUAL SURPLUSES FOR CONSUMPTION AND FOR INVESTMENT, WHICH:

  1. without this invented financial and credit currency are terribly harmful, generating very serious anti-economic crises and must be destroyed or deviated towards absurd weapons productions.
  2. but they can be registered according to trustworthy analyses and statistics, nowadays more and more exact thanks to the theoretical and practical progress made by the telematic information of the sort «input-output» in actual time.

With respect to the «small» bank and the worthless bankers, this paltry bank and these mean bankers, without imagination, they only conceive of their business as a contemptible market usury, which they should fertilize with a less contemptible professionalism, this bank of a small market usury based on bank loans with exorbitant interests of hard worked private savings, ill or not paid by the accounting institutions where the wealthy and the proletarians as compelled to leave their money.

With this Malthusian bank – distinctive of countries of great ancient civilizations, which for many centuries have been in full decline – wretchedly usurious with ridiculous loans, very high interests and continuously bad-tempered, my father didn’t want to have any business and perhaps he was right, even if this estrangement decapitalized him in a time of black market with a runaway inflation. These paltry banks carried on with pride while the official market carried on badly in a very hard deflation.

The few deals I had with such banks and such mentality pushed me to all the possible and imaginable disasters.

But it doesn’t matter. At my age of almost 80 years they have all been very fruitful experiences in the face of a better understanding of the great human adventure in the last 6 / 5 millions years (according to the experts), to reach a very short civilized era of about 10.000 years, where money, trade-monetary values, liberal-monetary values, currency and bank are the privileged instruments of the transanimal power, or of the infraanimal recessions of our chronospecies.


1Customs are reinstated as an accounting control means of the goods, but without any charges, that is without any customs duties.

Home | Who we are? | Links | Contact and email